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Publikationen von Professorinnen und Professoren der HAW Hamburg

Jahr:  
Alle : 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, ... , 2017
Autor:  
Alle : A, À, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, Ö, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z 
Alle : J. Ryba, ... , Jochums, Johanning, Johannsen, ... , Jöst 
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Referenzen

2017

Buchbeiträge:

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Andreas Johanning und Dieter Scholz
Investigation of a Novel Turboprop-Driven Aircraft Concept Including Future Technologies
Ram P. BAJPAI; U. CHANDRASEKHAR (Hrsg.) Innovative Design and Development Practices in Aerospace and Automotive Engineering aus Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering
Seite 589-603.
I-DAD, February 22-24, 2016,
Verlag: Springer, Singapor
2017
ISBN: 978-981-10-1770-4

Schlüsselwörter: Turboprop aircraft, Conceptual aircraft design, Aircraft design optimization, Strut-braced wing, Natural laminar flow

Marker: TI-FF

Zusammenfassung: This paper presents a novel concept for a highly efficient and ecological propeller-driven aircraft. The aircraft has a high wing, T-tail, and two turboprop engines with large propeller diameters decreasing disc loading and therefore increasing propeller efficiency. The aircraft also features a strut-braced wing with natural laminar flow. It is shown that direct operating costs can potentially be reduced by about 17 % while reducing trip fuel mass and therefore CO2 emissions by about 36 % compared to the reference aircraft Airbus A320.

2015

Konferenz, Symposium, Vortragsreihe, Einzelausstellung, Modenschau, Künstl. Leitung (als Ausrichter):

pdf
Andreas Johanning und Dieter Scholz
Comparison of the Potential Environmental Impact Improvements of Future Aircraft Concepts Using Life Cycle Assessment
5th CEAS Air & Space Conference
Delft, The Netherlands
07. - 11. September 2015
Proceedings of the 5th CEAS Air & Space Conference (7-11 Sept 2015, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands)
Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS)
DOI: pending

Schlüsselwörter: LCA, life cycle, assessment, aircraft

Marker: TI-FF

Zusammenfassung: In today’s aeronautical research, several future aircraft concepts are being discussed. Among them are electric, hydrogen and alternative fuel powered aircraft. Often, their potential environmental impact improvement compared to conventional aircraft is measured by the reduction of harmful emissions during the flight. However, a serious comparison with conventional aircraft is only possible if the total environmental impact over the entire life cycle is analyzed. This paper aims at calculating the total environmental impact of electric, hydrogen and alternative fuel powered aircraft and at comparing it to that of the reference aircraft Airbus A320 200. In a first step, the future concepts are being conceptually designed based on the requirements of the reference aircraft. In a second step, their environmental impact is calculated using a life cycle assessment. Finally the environmental impact of the future concepts is compared to that of the A320. Results show that the way of generating electricity has a dominating influence on the environmental impact of all considered future concepts. Using today’s electricity mix, their environmental impact is mostly even worse than that of the reference aircraft. Only if a high share of renewable energy sources is used for the generation of electricity, the future concepts can substantially improve environmental impact.

2014

Konferenz, Symposium, Vortragsreihe, Einzelausstellung, Modenschau, Künstl. Leitung (als Ausrichter):

pdf
Andreas Johanning und Dieter Scholz
Adapting Life Cycle Impact Assessment Methods for Application in Aircraft Design
Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2014
Augsburg, Germany
16. - 18. September 2014
Publikationen zum Deutschen Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2014
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DGLR)

Marker: TI-FF

Zusammenfassung: Minimizing not only costs but also environmental impact becomes more and more important in aircraft design. The environmental impact of future aircraft can be calculated in aircraft design using a life cycle assessment. Life cycle assessments are widely used to calculate environmental impacts of products during their life cycle based on the inputs and outputs that the product exchanges with the environment. For most products, these input and output flows occur on the ground. In contrast to that the major part of the emissions of an aircraft occurs during cruise in an altitude of several kilometers. In case the environmental impact of an emission depends on altitude, it is important to consider that in the life cycle assessment of an aircraft. Therefore this paper investigates to what extent existing life cycle impact assessment methods consider the effects of altitude dependent emissions and if they have to be adapted to be able to deal with the special requirements of life cycle assessments of aircraft. The results of that investigation show that the effects of contrails and cirrus clouds as well as certain altitude dependent environmental impacts of certain emissions are not sufficiently covered by existing impact assessment methods. Therefore it is proposed how existing methods for an altitude dependent calculation of the environmental impact of emissions can be integrated into existing impact assessment methods. Finally it is analyzed how this integration affects the results of a life cycle assessment of aircraft using the medium range aircraft Airbus A320-200 as application example. It is shown that the integration of contrails and cirrus clouds as well as NOx emissions leads to a considerable increase of the environmental impact of aircraft. The single score of the ReCiPe method expressing the total environmental impact rises by 108 %. The percentage of contrails and cirrus clouds on the overall environmental impact rises from 0 % to 32 % while that of NOx emissions rises from 8 % to 24 %. The proposed adaption of existing life cycle impact assessment methods allows to improve the accuracy of the life cycle assessment results of aircaft and to consider new effects in environmental aircraft design optimization concerning, for instance, flight mission profile or emissions that have previously been wrongly rated as safe.

pdf
Andreas Johanning und Dieter Scholz
Conceptual Aircraft Design Based on Lifecycle Assesssment
ICAS 2014 - 29th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences
St. Petersburg, Russia
7.-12. September 2014
ICAS 2014 PROCEEDINGS
International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS)
Verlag: International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS), Bonn, Germany

Marker: TI-FF

Zusammenfassung: This paper investigates the influence of the integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on conceptual aircraft design. The Environmental Impact (EI) of different life cycle phases and the driving design parameters of the EI of an aircraft are analyzed. A trade-off between low EI and low Direct Operating Costs (DOC) is investigated. It is shown that while DOC and EI optimized aircraft differed a lot in the past when Airbus A320 had its entry into service, they have nowadays become more similar due to a strong surge of fuel price making low fuel consumption a key design criterion also for DOC. It is shown that in 2030, a next generation turboprop driven medium range aircraft, solely optimized for minimum EI, could have the potential of improving EI by about 46 % while still improving DOC by about 12 % compared to nowadays medium range aircraft.

pdf
Dieter Scholz und Andreas Johanning
Smart Turboprop – A Possible A320 Successor
4th Symposium on Collaboration in Aircraft Design
Toulouse, France
25. - 27. November.2014
Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Collaboration in Aircraft Design
CEAS Technical Committee Aircraft Design (TCAD)

Schlüsselwörter: Aircraft Design; Jet; Propeller; Optimization; Airbus; A320

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Zusammenfassung: Economic Top Level Requirements (TLR) for the next generation of aircraft in the class of the B737 and A320 demand a minimum of 25% fuel burn reduction. These aircraft are built to ICAO airport requirements: Wing span of less than 36 m and field length less than 1800 m. An investigation was undertaken looking at 1.) an optimized standard jet configuration violating given ICAO airport requirements, 2.) a box wing configuration respecting ICAO airport requirements, and 3.) a "Smart Turboprop" flying lower/slower, including a Strut Braced Wing (SBW), and Natural Laminar Flow (NLF). All aircraft are optimized with Differential Evolution (DE) – a Genetic Algorithm (GA). The aircraft are modeled with a spread sheet. For the "Smart Turboprop" the best configuration was found to be one with T-Tail and two engines. It minimized the Direct Operating Costs (DOC) by almost 14 % (without SBW and without NLF). The DOC reduced by 17 % if SBW and NLF were also applied. Take-off mass reduced by 24 % and cruise Mach number (not a requirement) is down to 0.51. Fuel burn benefits could also be obtained even without a new aircraft: Proposed is a gentle violation of ICAO wing span limitations. Manufacturers offering aircraft that are wing span limited and equipped with winglets should offer (as option) also a wing span increase on both tips (by about the same amount as winglet height). Benefits come, because horizontal wing growth (wing span increase) is more efficient than vertical wing growth (winglets).

2013

Zeitschriftenbeiträge:

pdf
Andreas Johanning und Dieter Scholz
Smart Turboprop
Ingenieurspiegel, (1):56-58
2013
ISSN: 1868-5919
Deutsch

Marker: TI-FF

Zusammenfassung: Im Verbundprojekt „Airport 2030“ werden in der Forschungsgruppe "Aircraft Design and Systems Group (AERO)" an der HAW Hamburg effiziente Flugzeugkonfigurationen untersucht. Eine dieser Konfigurationen ist der sogenannte Smart Turboprop. Es wird untersucht, ob man durch den Einsatz eines tieffliegenden Turbopropflugzeugs auf der Mittelstrecke eine Senkung der direkten Betriebskosten erreichen kann.

Konferenz, Symposium, Vortragsreihe, Einzelausstellung, Modenschau, Künstl. Leitung (als Ausrichter):

pdf
Andreas Johanning und Dieter Scholz
A First Step Towards the Integration of Life Cycle Assessment into Conceptual Aircraft Design
Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2013
Stuttgart, Germany
10. - 12. September 2013
Publikationen zum DLRK 2013
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DGLR)
Englisch

Marker: TI-FF

Zusammenfassung: In civil aviation, an increasing awareness of the importance of environmental protection can be noticed. Amongst others, a better environmental protection could be achieved by giving it a higher weighting in the multi objective design optimization of future aircraft as civil aircraft are nowadays mainly designed for lowest operating costs. To be able to include the environmental protection in the design evaluation, the Environmental Impact (EI) of an aircraft has to be known which could be achieved by integrating a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) into conceptual aircraft design. This paper aims at presenting a first step towards the integration of LCA into conceptual aircraft design. The EI of various contributors being part of the life cycle of an entire aircraft fleet have a minor influence on the EI as their impact is distributed over all passenger-kilometers traveled by the whole fleet. Processes occurring each flight have the highest contribution to the EI of an aircraft as their impact is only distributed over the passenger-kilometers of a single flight. An evaluation of the EI using the World ReCiPe H/A method shows that fossil fuel depletion has the highest percentage with around 47 % of the total EI, followed by climate change with an impact of around 44 %. The results of the presented simplified analysis are compared to the results of the few other existing LCA results of aircraft. It is shown that the simple approach of this paper already is in quite a good a agreement with the results of other LCAs. It can be concluded that the presented approach can already be used for a simple, first calculation of the EI of an aircraft. The integration of LCA into conceptual aircraft design will allow to assess and influence the EI of future aircraft over the entire life cycle early in the design process.

2012

Konferenz, Symposium, Vortragsreihe, Einzelausstellung, Modenschau, Künstl. Leitung (als Ausrichter):

pdf
Andreas Johanning und Dieter Scholz
Evaluation of Worldwide Noise and Pollutant Emission Costs for Integration into Direct Operating Cost Methods
Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2012
Berlin, Germany
10. - 12. September 2012
Publikationen zum DLRK 2012
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DGLR)
Englisch

Schlüsselwörter: Direct Operating Costs, Noise/emission costs

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Zusammenfassung: This paper analyzes the current Pollutant and Noise (PN) emission costs due to airport charges and CO2 costs due to the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) of the European Union. Based on this analysis, equations for a realistic prediction of PN fees of future aircraft are proposed allowing the consideration of these PN fees in the calculation of Direct Operating Costs (DOC) and consequently their integration into the objective function for aircraft design optimization. Firstly, the PN Emission Fees (PNEF) per flight and passenger (PAX) for 36 commonly used aircraft, at the 50 busiest airports in the world in 2010 (in terms of their number of PAX per year) are analyzed. The PNEF are then weighted against the total number of PAX worldwide. The weighted average of the PNEF of these 50 airports is assumed to represent the average PNEF of all airports in the world. Secondly, the Costs due to the ETS (CETS) of the European Union per flight and PAX starting in 2012 are analyzed. Amongst others, the method is able to consider the current and future European share of worldwide aircraft movements as well as variable emission certificate prices, for several assumptions for the worldwide growth of CO2 emissions of aircraft. Finally PNEF and CETS are included into the Direct Operation Cost (DOC) method of the Association of European Airlines (AEA) from 1989 although any DOC method could be selected. The analysis of an Airbus A320-211 with the AEA DOC-method shows that noise emission fees account for about 0,20 %, pollutant emission fees for 0,02 % and CETS for 0,12 % of the DOC showing that these costs are low compared to other DOC elements. Current PNEF therefore have little influence on the overall economics of aircraft which explains why the economic motivation for more silent or less pollutive aircraft stays low. The economic motivation could be increased by a considerable rise of the PNEF, a higher number of airports charging for PN emissions or the introduction of a worldwide ETS. The proposed method for inclusion of PNEF and CETS in DOC methods is universal and enables to forecast charges until about 2020. It remains however necessary to repeatedly observe the current charges in order to represent them correctly in extended DOC methods also in years to come.

pdf
Andreas Johanning und Dieter Scholz
Novel Low-Flying Propeller-Driven Aircraft Concept For Reduced Direct Operating Costs And Emissions
CAS 2012 - 28th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences
Brisbane, Australia
23.-28. September 2012
ICAS 2012 Proceedings
International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences (ICAS)
Verlag: Optimage Ltd, Edinburgh, UK
Englisch

Marker: TI-FF

Zusammenfassung: This paper presents a novel concept for a fast, lower flying, highly efficient and ecological propeller driven aircraft. The aircraft has a high wing, T-tail and 4 turboprop engines with large propeller diameters decreasing the disc loading and therefore increasing the propeller efficiency. The propeller blades have high sweep angles allowing high cruise Mach numbers at high efficiencies. It is shown that Direct Operating Costs (DOC) can potentially be reduced by about 11 % while reducing trip fuel mass and therefore CO2 emissions by about 14.9 % compared to the reference aircraft Airbus A320.

2011

Konferenz, Symposium, Vortragsreihe, Einzelausstellung, Modenschau, Künstl. Leitung (als Ausrichter):

pdf
Andreas Johanning
CellDrone - A Modular Multi-Rotor Aircraft
Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2011
Bremen, Germany
27. - 29. September 2011
Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress 2011 : Tagungsband - Manuskripte , Seite 1527-1532.
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DGLR)
Englisch

Marker: TI-FF

Zusammenfassung: Electrically powered multi-rotor aircraft gain popularity among fire brigades, police and military units. The driving forces behind this trend are decreasing unit costs and increasing capabilities. Particularly the steady advances in sensor and microprocessor technologies allow the use of more sophisticated control algorithms. The current development of batteries that possess a significantly higher energy density will further accelerate this trend. The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel concept for scalable and modular multi-rotor aircraft. These aircraft are made from three or more identical hexagonal cells. Each cell contains two ducted, directly driven counter-rotating propellers as well as motor controllers, batteries and a control unit. Cells can be arbitrarily connected to each other to create a highly redundant, energy and cost effective aircraft for a wide range of mission requirements.

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Letzte Änderung: 23.01.15

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